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Tuesday, February 24, 2009

Security with 2003 R2 FSRM quotas

This post provides information on several aspects of security with Windows Server 2003 R2 FSRM quotas, which you may come across if you use the previous two posts to implement FSRM quotas on a standalone server or MSCS clustered node.

LocalService Command Notification Task

If your quota has a notification task that runs a command, you may need to set the security of the executable or areas accessed by the command. By default, FSRM runs commands as the LocalService account - an account with restricted local permissions.

In this example, the command executed is the logentry.bat batch file from the previous post, which simply writes a log entry to a file. To allow the batch file to run as the localservice account – which is a member of the 'Authenticated Users' group, I set the following permissions:

  • Add authenticated users:R to the root (not OICI - object inherit, container inherit) using SDDL with cacls
  • Add authenticated users:R to c:\scripts to execute the logentry.bat file
  • Add authenticated users:C to c:\logs to allow writing the log entry
  • Ensure that cmd.exe can be executed (default permissions should suffice)

This was done with the following commands:

  • cacls c:\ /S:"D:PAI(A;OICI;FA;;;BA)(A;;0x1200a9;;;AU)(A;OICI;FA;;;SY)"
  • cacls c:\scripts /e /g "authenticated users":R
  • cacls c:\logs /e /g "authenticated users":C

Note that while testing this, I was using localsystem (unrestricted local permissions) to verify that security was the issue, but in an MSCS cluster when failing over the virtual server from one cluster node to the other, the quota template reset itself to localservice instead of localsystem.

Before setting permissions to allow LocalService to run the script, this left the notification task not executing successfully. Depending upon what your command does you may require elevated local or remote privilege, for which you may want to use localsystem or networkservice.

Target Permissions preventing execution

When specifying a command to run as a notification task, 2003 R2 FSRM will not allow running a command which standard users have change/full control to, directly or through inheritance.

To me this seems like an unusual approach for an out of the box Microsoft product and isn't very intuitive, as in my lab inherited permissions from a parent directory allowing Users:F were causing the task to fail.


References

Implementing 2003 FSRM quotas Command-line
http://waynes-world-it.blogspot.com/2009/02/implementing-2003-fsrm-quotas.html

2003 FSRM and NTFS Quotas compared
http://waynes-world-it.blogspot.com/2009/02/2003-fsrm-and-ntfs-quotas-compared.html

LocalService Account
http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ms684188(VS.85).aspx

Wayne's World of IT (WWoIT), Copyright 2009 Wayne Martin.


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Tuesday, February 10, 2009

Implementing 2003 FSRM quotas

This post provides information on implementing Windows Server 2003 FSRM quotas using the command-line dirquota.exe utility, creating a template and then applying that template to the filesystem using an autoquota. Example control files are provided to create the template, and a simple batch file to create a daily log file with quota notifications.

The first command below creates the soft 100MB quota template with three thresholds (85/99/150), and four notifications for those thresholds, two for email and one each for and command execution and event log entry. The second command creates an autoquota using the template on the specified remote server against the specified path. Note that in this example, the commands were run on a 64-bit physical server running MSCS, and the target server was a virtual cluster server (v01).
  • dirquota template add /Remote:v01 /Template:Test_Quota /Limit:100mb /type:Soft /label:"Test Default Quota" /add-threshold:85 /add-notification:85,M,c:\admin\control\Test_Quota_Email.txt /add-threshold:99 /add-notification:99,M,c:\admin\control\Test_Quota_Email.txt /add-notification:99,C,c:\admin\control\Test_Quota_Command.txt /add-notification:99,E,c:\admin\control\Test_Quota_Event.txt /add-threshold:150 /add-notification:150,M,c:\admin\control\Test_Quota_Email.txt
  • dirquota autoquota add /Remote:v01 /path:q:\folder1 /sourcetemplate:"Test_Quota"
Notes:

  1. The use of 99% instead of 100% was intentional, as 100% is not a notification; it’s a limit, so the pre-defined variables are different. This is obvious in the subject of the email, where the ‘[Quota Threshold]’ variable isn’t resolved when it’s a 100% 'notification'.
  2. The quota information is logged to \\p01\c$\logs\QuotaUsage_YYYYMMDD.log for 99% of quota usage, as well as sending an email to DiskUsageMonitor and logging an event on the cluster, and all quota information is available through the FSRM MMC snap-in.
  3. Within a single email notification, an email can be sent to one or more administrators, and/or the person who took the limit over the threshold – the owner of the file. In the template below, emails will be sent to both users for all three thresholds, and administrators for the 150% notification. E-mail notifications will be limited to one per day for the same notification.
  4. Any command can be run; in the example here a simple batch file is run that appends a log entry to a daily log file, providing an easy method to see quota alerts for each day.
  5. The notifications aren’t triggered until first create, so if you apply quotas to existing data, the notifications won’t start appearing until new data is written.
  6. A quirk with the 64-bit OS - creating the quota template only works with the 32-bit version of the dirquota.exe utility. If the physical server (p01 in the example above) were a 64-bit server, you would have to run the 32-bit dirquota.exe utility to create the template and autoquota (2003 enterprise R2 x64 SP1).
Configuration Files

Templates, quotas and autoquotas can all be created via command-line utilities. When creating templates with notifications, the information is supplied via control files. Example control files for running a command, logging an event, and sending an email are shown below.

Note the following global properties can be specified in each notification:
  • Notification – m | e | c | r
  • m - an e-mail notification
  • e - an event log notification
  • c - a command or script execution
  • r - a report generation
  • RunLimitInterval – The number of minutes to wait between sending notifications to save repeated unnecessary notifications. A setting of 0 indicates a notification will be sent on each trigger.


Test_Quota_Command.txt

Notification=c
Command=c:\windows\system32\cmd.exe
Arguments=/c c:\admin\scripts\logentry.bat "%Date%,%Time%,[Source Io Owner],[Quota Path],[Server],[Quota Limit MB] MB,[Quota Used MB] MB,[Quota Used Percent]"
MonitorCommand=Disable
Account=LocalService
LogResult=Enable
RunLimitInterval=0



Test_Quota_Event.txt

Notification=e
RunLimitInterval=1440
EventType=Warning
Message=Excessive usage by [Source Io Owner] on [Quota Path], shared on [Server]. Limit of [Quota Limit MB] MB, [Quota Used MB] MB in use ([Quota Used Percent]% of limit).



Test_Quota_Email.txt

Notification=m
RunLimitInterval=1440
To=[Source Io Owner Email]
From=FSRM@server.domain.com
ReplyTo=FSRM-DoNotReply@server.domain.com
Cc=DiskUsageMonitor@domain.com
Subject=[Quota Threshold]% quota threshold exceeded
Message=A file written by [Source Io Owner] has exceeded the [Quota Threshold]% quota threshold for the quota on [Quota Path] on server [Server]. \
\
The quota limit is [Quota Limit MB] MB, and [Quota Used MB] MB currently is in use ([Quota Used Percent]% of limit).\
\
\
\


Logging to File
I'm not sure why a method to append to a log file wasn't included in the GUI, but this batch file appends a one-line entry to a rolling log file:



:: LogEntry.bat

:: Write a log for quota alerts

::%Date%,%Time%,[Source Io Owner],[Quota Path],[Server],[Quota Limit MB] MB,[Quota Used MB] MB,[Quota Used Percent]%

Set AdminLog=C:\Logs

for /f "tokens=1-8 delims=/:. " %%i in ('echo %date%') do Set DateFlat=%%l%%k%%j
Set LogFile=%AdminLog%\QuotaUsage_%DateFlat%.log

Echo %~1 >> %LogFile%



References

2003 FSRM and NTFS Quotas compared
http://waynes-world-it.blogspot.com/2009/02/2003-fsrm-and-ntfs-quotas-compared.html

FSRM and NTFS Quotas in 2003 R2
http://waynes-world-it.blogspot.com/2008/06/fsrm-and-ntfs-quotas-in-2003-r2.html

Configuration files for notifications in File Server Resource Manager
http://technet2.microsoft.com/windowsserver2008/en/library/a4426339-5345-44d5-81b7-a35a703daaac1033.mspx?mfr=true

How to use File Server Resource Manager (FSRM) to configure the notification feature for File Screening Management in Windows Server 2003 R2
http://support.microsoft.com/kb/926092

File Server Resource Manager Protocol Specification
http://download.microsoft.com/download/9/5/E/95EF66AF-9026-4BB0-A41D-A4F81802D92C/%5BMS-FSRM%5D.pdf

Dirquota admin options
http://technet2.microsoft.com/windowsserver2008/en/library/14c2a340-54cf-46fa-8b0d-beed6c220c671033.mspx?mfr=true

LocalService Account
http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ms684188(VS.85).aspx

Configuration files for notifications in File Server Resource Manager
http://technet2.microsoft.com/windowsserver2008/en/library/a4426339-5345-44d5-81b7-a35a703daaac1033.mspx?mfr=true

Create an auto quota
http://technet2.microsoft.com/WindowsServer/en/library/0de5535e-ef25-4ffa-a724-155573044ddc1033.mspx

Dirquota autoquota
http://technet2.microsoft.com/WindowsServer2008/en/library/2809c575-8d93-47cb-8bfc-a427da83cc2a1033.mspx


File Services
http://technet2.microsoft.com/windowsserver2008/en/library/6e5bb377-db25-4603-b1ff-ecc4f6c29b691033.mspx?mfr=true

Wayne's World of IT (WWoIT), Copyright 2009 Wayne Martin.


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Monday, February 9, 2009

2003 FSRM and NTFS Quotas compared

This post provides a quick comparison of 2003 FSRM and NTFS quotas, which I find useful when explaining how quotas in 2003 R2 work, as opposed to (or combined with) NTFS quotas. Also included is information on where the quota data is stored, and some methods to view that data.

Quota metafile information has been part of the NT filesystem since Windows NT 3.5, but has not been supported by the Operating System since the implementation of NTFS 5.0 – available in Windows 2000 and later.

When enabled, NTFS quotas track information as part of each write operation to the filesystem, providing a per-volume mapping between user SID and logical disk usage based on file ownership. While all the necessary information is stored in the NT filesystem, managing NTFS quotas is time-consuming and challenging for administrators.

Windows Server 2003 R2 File System Resource Manager (FSRM) provides a filesystem minifilter to control quotas, and a much improved interface to manage and report on quotas from a per-folder perspective.

The main differences between the two distinct quota methods available in 2003 R2 are that:

  1. FSRM provides per-folder quotas, as opposed to per-user/volume NTFS quotas. Regardless of file ownership, files in a folder will count towards the FSRM-set limits.
  2. SMB calls to return the free disk space are based on hard quotas at the root of the share or volume, not the quota applied to a folder - regardless of the share access point. NTFS hard quotas are volume-wide, and disk space is presented based on used-hard quota total, regardless of the share root or access method (remote SMB or local).
  3. FSRM quotas count only the size on disk of files, as opposed to NTFS quotas which count the logical uncompressed size. This is primarily considered for NTFS compressed files, but is presumably the same for offline files.
  4. FSRM quotas are controlled by a file system mini-filter storing quota data in \System Volume Information\SRM\quota.md and quota.xml, as opposed to NTFS quotas which are stored as part of the filesystem in \$Extend\$Quota file in $INDEX_ROOT NTFS attributes
  5. FSRM allows autoquota's, a concept of setting a quota at a top-level directory and each direct child subdirectory automatically inherits a copy of that quota. This provides an easy method of exception-based quotas. Managing NTFS quotas is GUI-based unless the WMI automation interface is used and an NTFS quota entry is automatically created for each new user SID.
  6. FSRM provides much improved reporting and alerting for quotas, whereas NTFS quotas only provide rudimentary reporting and eventlog entry alerting.
  7. FSRM has no supported automation interface to manage quotas, whereas NTFS quotas can be managed by WMI. However, the .Net assembly srmlib.dll provides an undocumented framework for managing FSRM quotas, which could be scripted through PowerShell if required.
  8. FSRM provides very strong support for command-line administration with dirquota.exe, with NTFS quotas having limited support available through fsutil
  9. In a MSCS cluster scenario, FSRM stores settings in the registry, located in HKLM\Cluster\SRM\Settings\SrmGlobalSettings\Data. NTFS quotas have all information stored on the filesystem, making both methods functional in a MSCS server cluster with shared storage.
  10. FSRM quotas provide improved notification - including in-built email, event logging, running a command or triggering a report.
  11. FSRM quotas allow for templates to be created, separating the creation of a standard set of quotas from the application of those quotas. This allows scalability and much improved process control.

How FSRM quota information is stored

FSRM quotas are stored in the "?:\System Volume Information\SRM\quota.xml" and "?:\System Volume Information\SRM\quota.sd" files, with the XML containing the configuration, and the SD file containing the actual quota information.

To see the configuration of FSRM quotas for a particular volume:

• psexec /s /i /d cmd.exe
• xcopy /h "?:\System Volume Information\SRM\quota.xml" %temp%
• attrib -r -s -h "%temp%\quota.xml"

The SD file is secured so only system can access, is marked as system/hidden and is locked by the mini-filter. One method to view the SD:

• psexec /s /i /d cmd.exe
• nfi "h:\System Volume Information\SRM\quota.md"
• diskedit Read Sectors (as returned by nfi)

How NTFS quota information is stored

NTFS stores quota information in a metafile on each volume called \$Extend\$Quota, with the information contained in the INDEX_ROOT $O and $Q NTFS attributes. Nfi.exe and diskedit.exe can be used to identify the file, and view the data contained in the logical sectors.

nfi q:

File 24
\$Extend\$Quota
$STANDARD_INFORMATION (resident)
$FILE_NAME (resident)
$INDEX_ROOT $O (resident)
$INDEX_ROOT $Q (resident)
$INDEX_ALLOCATION $Q (nonresident)
logical sectors 1036140-1036147 (0xfcf6c-0xfcf73)
$BITMAP $Q (resident)

Quota Minifilter driver

FSRM quotas use a minifilter driver to function – quota.sys – mounted by default in the I/O stack with an altitude of 125000 as part of the ‘FSFilter Physical Quota Management’ group. While this altitude can be changed by modifying a registry value, this is not recommended.

Both the R2 file screen filter (260800) and the cluster file system (200000-209999) are loaded higher in the stack then the quota minifilter.


fltmc filters & fltmc instances

Filter Name Num Instances Frame
------------------------------ ------------- -----
DfsDriver
Datascrn 0 0
Quota 1 0

Filter Volume Name Altitude Instance Name
----------------------------- -----------------------------
Quota Q: 125000 Quota


To detach the filter from a volume, the following command can be run:
• fltmc detach [volume:]

Note that doing so leaves the SRM directory in the ‘System Volume Information’ on the volume, and during testing when fltmc was used to reattach the quota filter to the volume, the previous quotas were seen as invalid and returned errors.


References

FSRM and NTFS Quotas in 2003 R2
http://waynes-world-it.blogspot.com/2008/06/fsrm-and-ntfs-quotas-in-2003-r2.html

Inside Win2K NTFS, Part 1
http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ms995846.aspx

You cannot create quotas on File Server Resource Manager (FSRM) in Windows Server 2003 R2
http://support.microsoft.com/kb/555941

FSRM quota information does not appear in the NTFS file system Quota Entries window, and NTFS file system disk quota information does not appear in FSRM in Windows Server 2003 R2
http://support.microsoft.com/kb/915042

Limited Group Policy management for NTFS quotas.
http://technet2.microsoft.com/windowsserver/en/library/2d82decb-6726-4c5c-b872-1658b0fc3e3e1033.mspx?mfr=true

Disk Quotas Tools and Settings
http://technet2.microsoft.com/windowsserver/en/library/3b5b242b-7bb2-48e4-8e5f-224a08b36b271033.mspx

HOW TO: Configure Disk Quotas for a Shared Disk in a Cluster
http://support.microsoft.com/kb/278365

Disk Quotas Tools and Settings
http://technet2.microsoft.com/windowsserver/en/library/3b5b242b-7bb2-48e4-8e5f-224a08b36b271033.mspx

Managing Disk Quotas in Windows Server 2003 and Windows XP
http://www.microsoft.com/technet/scriptcenter/topics/win2003/quotas.mspx

Designing a Disk Quota Strategy
http://technet2.microsoft.com/windowsserver/en/library/1EE8754E-48D6-4472-9B53-29E8D1DE09F81033.mspx

Quotas in a cluster:
http://support.microsoft.com/kb/278365

How Disk Quotas Work
http://technet2.microsoft.com/windowsserver/en/library/5becbcd6-8da3-4c3b-bc0e-258acd3ec1811033.mspx?mfr=true

Disk Quotas and Free Space
http://www.microsoft.com/technet/prodtechnol/windows2000serv/reskit/core/fncd_str_ctkj.mspx?mfr=true

Quota Minifilter Driver
http://technet2.microsoft.com/windowsserver2008/en/library/7c5a0b98-d963-4a1d-a499-316322746a8e1033.mspx?mfr=true

MUP Changes in Microsoft Windows Vista
http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/aa488427.aspx

File System Minifilter Load Order Groups and Altitude Ranges
http://www.microsoft.com/whdc/driver/filterdrv/alt-range.mspx


Wayne's World of IT (WWoIT), Copyright 2009 Wayne Martin.


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About Me

I’ve worked in IT for over 13 years, and I know just about enough to realise that I don’t know very much.