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Monday, September 8, 2008

Useful Active Directory command-line operations

The commands below are a subset of the complete command list found in Useful command-lines, and are command-line operations that perform queries, diagnostics or modifications to objects in an Active Directory. These commands can be useful for once-off or repeated tasks, and defining a source for bulk imports/modifications to objects.

Each command-line can be copied and pasted at the command prompt, if you use a batch file you'll need to reference variables with double-percent (%%).


Query a user from AD using WMI
wmic /node:"%DC%" /namespace:\\root\directory\LDAP path ds_user where "ds_cn='%username%'" GET ds_displayName,DS_UserPrincipalName,ds_cn,ds_name,ds_whenCreated

Show all replicated attributes in the AD Schema
dsquery * cn=schema,cn=configuration,DC=forestRootDomain -filter "(&(objectClass=attributeSchema)(objectCategory=attributeSchema)(!systemFlags:1.2.840.113556.1.4.803:=1))" -limit 0

Show an AD schema attribute
dsquery * cn=pwd-last-set,cn=schema,cn=configuration,DC=forestRootDomain

Given a list of user CNs, find them in the directory and report homeDirectory
for /f %i in (Users.txt) do @for /f "tokens=*" %m in ('"dsquery user -name %i"') do @for /f %p in ('"dsquery * %m -attr homeDirectory -l | find /i "\\" & if errorlevel 1 Echo NoHomeDirectory"') do @echo %i,%m,%p

Identify the DN of an Active Directory group
dsquery group -name %GroupName%

Find the current group scope of a security group
dsget group %GroupDN% -scope -secgrp

Change a group's scope to universal, a stepping stone for conversion
dsmod group %GroupDN% -scope u

Change a universal group's scope to global or local
dsmod group %GroupDN% -scope l | g

Modify the UPN for a user
dsmod user "%userdN%" -upn user@domain

After identifying one or more accounts without a UPN, set the UPN for each
for /f "skip=1 tokens=1,2-3" %i in (NoUPN.txt) do dsmod user "%j %k" -upn %i@%upnsuffix%

Find all user accounts with a UPN, and count the DNs returned
dsquery * domainroot -filter "&(objectclass=user)(objectcategory=person)(userprincipalname=*)" -s %server% | find /i /c "user"

Find all user accounts without a UPN, and count the DNs returned
dsquery * domainroot -filter "&(objectclass=user)(objectcategory=person)(!(userprincipalname=*))" -s %server% | find /i /c "user"

Identify user accounts without a UPN to be corrected
dsquery * %OU% -filter "&(objectclass=user)(objectcategory=person)(!(userprincipalname=*))" -s %server% -scope onelevel -attr name distinguishedname > NoUPN.txt

Determine whether an attribute is replicated in AD through bitwise AND
dsquery * cn=%AttributeName%,cn=schema,cn=configuration,dc=forestRootDomain -filter "!(&(systemFlags:1.2.840.113556.1.4.803:=1))"

Find customised Service Connection Points of type RISServer
dsquery * -filter "&((objectClass=ConnectionPoint)(objectCategory=ServiceConnectionPoint)(keywords=RISServer))" -attr serviceDNSName

Find intellimirror SCPs fpr RIS servers
dsquery * -filter "&((objectClass=ConnectionPoint)(objectCategory=IntellimirrorSCP)(netbootServer=*))" -attr netbootServer

Query for the display specifiers in the AD user class
dsquery * "CN=user-Display,CN=409,CN=DisplaySpecifiers,CN=Configuration,%forestrootDomain%" -attr *

Find computers and their description from the AD
dsquery * -filter "(&(objectClass=Computer)(objectCategory=Computer))" "%rootDN%" -attr cn description

Use LDP to search for tombstoned objects in AD
Base DN: CN=Deleted Objects,%domainRoot%, Filter: (isDeleted=*), Extended Search, Add control: 1.2.840.113556.1.4.417

Bulk modify of mailbox permissions
admodcmd -dn "%DN%" -f "(&(objectclass=user)(CN=%userFilter%*))" -addtomailboxrights %Domain%\%Group% ACE_MB_FULL_ACCESS

Check user attributes from AD (division, department, home drive, email)
for /f "tokens=1-3" %i in (%users.txt%) do @for /f "tokens=*" %m in ('"@dsquery user -name %i"') do @for /f "tokens=1-10" %q in ('"@dsquery * %m -attr CN department division mail homeDirectory homedrive find /i /v "homeDirectory""') do @echo %q,%r,%s,%t,%u,%v,%w,%x,%y >> UserInformation.csv

Set a Service Principal Name for an alias against the host computer account
setspn -A HOST/%alias%.domain.com %server%

Find the computer object advertising a specific SPN
dsquery * -filter "(&(objectClass=Computer)(objectCategory=Computer)(servicePrincipalName=*SPN*))" -attr cn servicePrincipalName distinguishedName

Export group objects from AD to a CSV file
adfind -b "domainRoot" -f "objectclass=group" cn samaccountname -csv

Servers in the directory and their description
dsquery * dc=common,dc=local -filter "(&(objectCategory=Computer)(objectClass=Computer)(operatingSystem=*server*))" -limit 0 -attr cn description

Forest/Domain Functional Levels
ldifde -d cn=partitions,cn=configuration,dc=%domain% -r "((systemFlags=3)(systemFlags=-2147483648))" -l msds-behavior-version,dnsroot,ntmixeddomain,NetBIOSName -p subtree -f con (see http://support.microsoft.com/kb/322692 and http://support.microsoft.com/kb/224386)

Forest/Domain Functional Levels
dsquery * cn=partitions,cn=configuration,dc=%domain% -filter "((systemFlags=3)(systemFlags=-2147483648))" -attr msDS-Behavior-Version Name dnsroot ntmixeddomain NetBIOSName (see http://support.microsoft.com/kb/322692 and http://support.microsoft.com/kb/224386)

Lookup SRV records from DNS
nslookup -type=srv _ldap._tcp.dc._msdcs.{domainRoot}

Find when the AD was installed
dsquery * cn=configuration,DC=forestRootDomain -attr whencreated -scope base

Enumerate the trusts from the specified domain
dsquery * "CN=System,DC=domainRoot" -filter "(objectClass=trustedDomain)" -attr trustPartner flatName

Modify ACLs using dsacls (account ACL, not mailbox rights)
dsacls "%userDN%" /G "%Domain%\%Group%:CA;Send As"

Information on existing GPO’s
dsquery * "CN=Policies,CN=System,domainRoot" -filter "(objectCategory=groupPolicyContainer)" -attr displayName cn whenCreated gPCFileSysPath

FSMO Roles
ntdsutil roles Connections "Connect to server %logonserver%" Quit "select Operation Target" "List roles for conn server" Quit Quit Quit

Domain Controllers
Nltest /dclist:%userdnsdomain%

Domain Controller IP Configuration
for /f %i in ('dsquery server -domain %userdnsdomain% -o rdn') do psexec \\%i ipconfig /all >> DC_IPConfig.txt

Stale computer accounts
dsquery computer domainroot -stalepwd 180 -limit 0 > ComputerAccounts+180.txt

Stale user accounts
dsquery user domainroot -stalepwd 180 -limit 0 > UserAccounts+180.txt

Disabled user accounts
dsquery user domainroot -disabled -limit 0 > UserAccountsDisabled.txt

AD Database disk usage
for /f %i in ('dsquery server -domain %userdnsdomain% -o rdn') do dir \\%i\d$\ntds >> NTDS_Size_%userdomain%.txt

Global Catalog Servers from DNS
dnscmd %logonserver% /enumrecords %userdnsdomain% _tcp find /i "3268"

Global Catalog Servers from AD
dsquery * "CN=Configuration,DC=forestRootDomain" -filter "(&(objectCategory=nTDSDSA)(options:1.2.840.113556.1.4.803:=1))"

Users with no logon script
dsquery * domainroot -filter "(&(objectCategory=Person)(objectClass=User)(!scriptPath=*))" -limit 0 -attr sAMAccountName sn givenName pwdLastSet distinguishedName

User accounts with no pwd required
dsquery * domainroot -filter "(&(objectCategory=Person)(objectClass=User)(userAccountControl:1.2.840.113556.1.4.803:=32))"

User accounts with no pwd expiry
dsquery * domainroot -filter "(&(objectCategory=Person)(objectClass=User)(userAccountControl:1.2.840.113556.1.4.803:=65536))"

User accounts that are disabled
dsquery * domainroot -filter "(&(objectCategory=Person)(objectClass=User)(userAccountControl:1.2.840.113556.1.4.803:=2))"

User accounts with no password expiry and not disabled
dsquery * domainroot -filter "(&(objectCategory=Person)(objectClass=User)(userAccountControl:1.2.840.113556.1.4.803:=65536)(!userAccountControl:1.2.840.113556.1.4.803:=2))"

Tombstoned AD objects
Adrestore.exe (sysinternals utility)

Garbage Collection and tombstone
dsquery * "cn=Directory Service,cn=Windows NT,cn=Services,cn=Configuration,DC=forestRootDomain" -attr garbageCollPeriod tombstoneLifetime

DSQuery authorised DHCP Servers
Dsquery * "cn=NetServices,cn=Services,cn=Configuration, DC=forestRootDomain" -attr dhcpServers

Group Policy Verification Tool
gpotool.exe /checkacl /verbose

AD OU membership
dsquery computer -limit 0

AD OU membership
dsquery user -limit 0

List Service Principal Names
for /f %i in ('dsquery server -domain %userdnsdomain% -o rdn') do setspn -L %i

Compare DC Replica Object Count
dsastat –s:DC1;DC2;... –b:Domain –gcattrs:objectclass –p:999

Check AD ACLs
acldiag dc=domainTree

NTFRS Replica Sets
for /f %i in ('dsquery server -domain %userdnsdomain% -o rdn') do ntfrsutl sets %i

NTFRS DS View
for /f %i in ('dsquery server -domain %userdnsdomain% -o rdn') do ntfrsutl ds %i

Domain Controllers per site
Dsquery * "CN=Sites,CN=Configuration,DC=forestRootDomain" -filter (objectCategory=Server)

DNS Zones in AD
for /f %i in ('dsquery server -o rdn') do Dsquery * -s %i domainroot -filter (objectCategory=dnsZone)

Subnet information
Dsquery subnet –limit 0

List Organisational Units
Dsquery OU

ACL on all OUs
For /f “delims=” %i in ('dsquery OU') do acldiag %i >> ACLDiag.txt

Domain Trusts
nltest /domain_trusts /v

AD Subnet and Site Information
dsquery * "CN=Subnets,CN=Sites,CN=Configuration,DC=forestRootDomain" -attr cn siteObject description location

AD Site Information
dsquery * "CN=Sites,CN=Configuration,DC=forestRootDomain" -attr cn description location -filter (objectClass=site)

Printer Queue Objects in AD
dsquery * domainroot -filter "(objectCategory=printQueue)" -limit 0

Group Membership with user details
dsget group "groupDN" -members dsget user -samid -fn -mi -ln -display -empid -desc -office -tel -email -title -dept -mgr

Site Links and Cost
dsquery * "CN=Sites,CN=Configuration,DC=forestRootDomain" -attr cn cost description replInterval siteList -filter (objectClass=siteLink)

Time gpresult
timethis gpresult /v > GPResult_%ComputerName%.txt 2<&1 Check time against Domain w32tm /monitor /computers:ForestRootPDC > %temp%\Time.txt

Domain Controller Diagnostics
dcdiag /s:%logonserver% /v /e /c

Domain Replication Bridgeheads
repadmin /bridgeheads

Replication Failures from KCC
repadmin /failcache

Inter-site Topology servers per site
Repadmin /istg * /verbose

Replication latency
repadmin /latency /verbose

Queued replication requests
repadmin /queue *

Show connections for a DC
repadmin /showconn *

Replication summary
Repadmin /replsummary

Show replication partners
repadmin /showrepl * /all

All DCs in the forest
repadmin /viewlist *

ISTG from AD attributes
dsquery * "CN=NTDS Site Settings,CN=siteName,CN=Sites,CN=Configuration,DC=forestRootDomain" -attr interSiteTopologyGenerator

Return the object if KCC Intra/Inter site is disabled for each site
Dsquery site dsquery * -attr * -filter "((Options:1.2.840.113556.1.4.803:=1)(Options:1.2.840.113556.1.4.803:=16))"

Find all connection objects
dsquery * forestRoot -filter (objectCategory=nTDSConnection) –attr distinguishedName fromServer whenCreated displayName

Find all connection schedules
adfind -b "cn=Configuration,DC=forestRootDomain" -f "objectcategory=ntdsConnection" cn Schedule -csv

Copy all Group Policy .pol files
for /f "tokens=1-8 delims=\" %i in ('dir /b /s \\%dc%\sysvol\%userdnsdomain%\policies\*.pol') do @echo copy \\%i\%j\%k\%l\%m\%n\%o %m_%n.pol

Extract the registry entries from each Group Policy pol file
for %i in (*.pol) do regview %i > %i.txt

Find policy changes for each policy
for /f "tokens=1,2 delims=," %i in (Output from 'Extract policy registry entries') do for /f "tokens=2 delims=:" %k in ('"find /i /c "valuename" %~nj*.txt find /i "%~nj""') do @echo %i,%j,%k

Domain Controller Netlogon entries
for /f %i in ('dsquery server /o rdn') do echo %i & reg query \\%i\hklm\system\currentcontrolset\services\netlogon\parameters

Find site links that contain two sites with Domain Controllers
for /f "tokens=1,2 delims=-" %i in (Sites.txt) do @find /i "%i" DCs.txt >nul & if errorlevel 0 if not errorlevel 1 @find /i "%j" DCs.txt find /i /v "----------"

Find policy display name given the GUID
dsquery * "CN=Policies,CN=System,DC=domainRoot" -filter (objectCategory=groupPolicyContainer) -attr Name displayName

Find empty groups
dsquery * -filter "&(objectCategory=group)(!member=*)" -limit 0 -attr whenCreated whenChanged groupType sAMAccountName distinguishedName memberOf

Find a DC for each trusted domain
for /f "skip=1" %i in ('"dsquery * CN=System,DC=domainRoot -filter (objectClass=trustedDomain) -attr trustPartner"') do nltest /dsgetdc:%i

Verify automatic external LDAP referrals are working
dsquery * dc=other,dc=domain -s %localDC%

Check winlogon notification packages on DCs
for /f %i in ('dsquery server /o rdn') do @for /f "tokens=4" %m in ('"reg query \\%i\HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Control\Lsa /v "Notification Packages" find /i "Notification""') do @echo %i,%m

Find out if a user account is currently enabled or disabled
dsquery user DC=%userdnsdomain:.=,DC=% -name %username% dsget user -disabled -dn

Find 2003 servers in the domain
dsquery * domainroot -filter "(&(objectCategory=Computer)(objectClass=Computer)(operatingSystem=*Server*))" -limit 0

Open DS query window
rundll32 dsquery,OpenQueryWindow

Check for a schema attribute
dsquery * "CN=Schema,CN=Configuration,DC=forestRoot" -filter "(&((cn=%ObjectName*)((objectCategory=classSchema)(objectCategory=attributeSchema))))"

Find servers and the description recorded with the computer account
dsquery * %domainRoot% -filter "(&(objectCategory=Computer)(objectClass=Computer)(operatingSystem=*Server*))" -limit 0 -attr cn distinguishedName Description

Find DCs in the specified site from AD
dsquery * "CN=%SiteName%,CN=Sites,CN=Configuration,DC=root,DC=local" -filter "&(objectClass=server)(objectCategory=server)"

Dump account lockout eventlog entries from all DCs for the last five days
for /f %i in ('dsquery server -domain %userdnsdomain% -o rdn') do echo dumpel.exe -e 644 -l Security -m Security -s %i -c -d 5

Query for universal groups
dsquery * dc=%forestRootDomain% -filter "(&(objectCategory=group)(groupType=-2147483640))"

Find the link speed when connecting to the domain
linkspeed /s %domain%

Determine users that aren’t in a group
for /f "tokens=1-3" %i in (%users.txt%) do @for /f "tokens=*" %m in ('"@dsquery user -name %i"') do @echo %m & @dsget user %m -memberof -expand @findstr /i /c:"%m" /c:"%GROUP%" & echo.

Query group membership
dsquery group -name %GROUP% dsget group -members -expand > %GROUP%.members

Check whether users are in a group (from 'Query group membership')
for /f "skip=1 tokens=1-3" %i in (%users.txt%) do @find /i "%i" %GROUP%.members >NUL & @if errorlevel 1 echo %i

Check whether users are in a group or not (from 'Query group membership')
for /f "tokens=1-3" %i in (%users.txt%) do @find /i "%i" %GROUP%.members >NUL & @if errorlevel 0 if not errorlevel 1 (echo %i Member) else (echo %i NotMember)

Return the DN of a list of users
for /f %i in (%users.txt%) do @dsquery user -name %i


Wayne's World of IT (WWoIT), Copyright 2008 Wayne Martin.

3 comments:

Anonymous said...

I think your site is cool. Keep up the good work

aatif said...

Excellent Post Very helpfull Keep it UP

dougvitale said...

Every useful Windows command for network administrators is chronicled here along with sample commands:

http://dougvitale.wordpress.com/2013/02/07/network-administration-commands-for-microsoft-windows-and-active-directory/


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About Me

I’ve worked in IT for over 13 years, and I know just about enough to realise that I don’t know very much.