Monday, September 8, 2008

Useful DNS, DHCP and WINS command-line operations

The commands below are a subset of the complete command list found in Useful command-lines, and are command-line operations for core network services - DNS, WINS and DHCP. Most of these commands are queries, useful for once-off or repeated information gathering for reporting, trending, troubleshooting or diagnostics.

Each command-line can be copied and pasted at the command prompt, if you use a batch file you'll need to reference variables with double-percent (%%).

DNS command-line operations

Query DNS forest-wide partition replica
dsquery * "DC=ForestDNSZones,dc=forestRootDomain

Add a CNAME record to DNS
dnscmd %server% /recordadd %zone% %AliasName% CNAME %HostnameAliasing%

Query zone resource records on a Microsoft DNS server
wmic /namespace:\\root\microsoftdns /node:%server% path MicrosoftDNS_ResourceRecord WHERE ContainerName='%zone_name%'

nslookup with debug information
nslookup -debug %IP%

DSQuery authorised DHCP Servers
Dsquery * "cn=NetServices,cn=Services,cn=Configuration, DC=forestRootDomain" -attr dhcpServers

Enumerate all records from a DNS zone
dnscmd /enumrecords @ /additional /continue > DNS_all.txt

Lookup SRV records from DNS
nslookup -type=srv _ldap._tcp.dc._msdcs.{domainRoot}

DNS Information
for /f %i in ('dsquery server -domain %userdnsdomain% -o rdn') do dnscmd %i /info

DNS Zone Detailed information
dnscmd /zoneinfo %userdnsdomain%

DNS Zones in AD
for /f %i in ('dsquery server -o rdn') do Dsquery * -s %i domainroot -filter (objectCategory=dnsZone)

Enumerate DNS Server Zones
for /f %i in ('dsquery server -o rdn') do dnscmd %i /enumzones

Print DNS Zones
dnscmd DNSServer /zoneprint DNSZone

Add a host record in DNS
dnscmd %dnsserver% /recordadd %zone% %relative_name% A %ip%

Find aging records from an enumerated zone
find /i "aging:" DNS_all.txt > DNS_aging.txt

DNS Scavenging check, based on the output of aging records from dnscmd.exe
cscript DNSScavengeTest.wsf /f:DNS_aging.txt

Query DNS objects from the directory
dsquery * DC=,CN=MicrosoftDNS,cn=System,dc=

Start DNS scavenging
dnsmd /startscavenging

Delete a host record from DNS
dnscmd %server% /recorddelete %zone% @ A %IP%

Determine the DNS suffix search list set through policy for a computer
reg query "\\%Computer%\HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\software\policies\microsoft\Windows NT\DNSClient" /v SearchList

Query for the zones hosted on a Microsoft DNS server
wmic /namespace:\\root\microsoftdns /node:%server% path MicrosoftDNS_Zone

Find DNS Forwarder information from dnscmd output
for %b in (DNS*.txt) do @for /f "skip=2 delims=[]" %i in ('"find /i /N "Forwarders:" %b"') do @for /f "skip=2 delims=[]" %m in ('"find /i /N "Command completed successfully." %b"') do @for /f %p in ('set /a %m-%i') do echo tail -%p %b

List primary reverse lookup zones from a DNS server
dnscmd %server% /EnumZones /secondary /reverse

List allowed secondary servers for the specified zone
dnscmd %server /zoneinfo SecondaryServers

DHCP command-line operations

Netsh authorised DHCP Servers
netsh dhcp show server

DHCP server information
netsh dhcp server \\DHCP_SERVER show all

DHCP server dump
netsh dhcp server \\DHCP_SERVER dump > dhcp.txt

Last 50 leases on DHCP servers
for /f %i in (DHCPServers.txt) do echo %i && tail -50 \\%i\c$\WINNT\system32\dhcp\DhcpSrvLog.Tue

Active DHCP leases
For /f %i in (DHCPServers.txt) do for /f “delims=- ” %j in ('"netsh dhcp server \\%i show scope find /i "active""') do netsh dhcp server \\%i scope %j show clientsv5 >> DHCPClients_%i.txt

DHCP clients from all servers
Find /i “255.” DHCPClients_*.txt find /i “255.” > DHCPClientsAll.txt

DHCP Server Active Scope Info
For /f %i in (DHCPServers.txt) do netsh dhcp server \\%i show scope find /i "active" >> DHCPInfo_%i.txt

Find Subnets from DHCP clients
FindSubnets.bat 'Output from Active DHCP leases'

Resolve DHCP clients hostnames
for /f "tokens=1,2,3 delims=," %i in (Output from 'Find Subnets from DHCP clients') do @for /f "tokens=2 delims=: " %m in ('"nslookup %j find /i "Name:""') do echo %m,%j,%k,%i

Find two online PCs per subnet
Echo. > TwoClientsPerSubnet.txt & for /f "tokens=1,2,3,4 delims=, " %i in ('"find /i "pc" 'Output from Resolve DHCP clients hostnames'"') do for /f "tokens=3 skip=1 delims=: " %m in ('"Find /i /c "%l" TwoClientsPerSubnet.txt"') do If %m LEQ 1 for /f %p in ('"ping -n 1 %i find /i /c "(0% loss""') do If %p==1 Echo %i,%j,%k,%l >> TwoClientsPerSubnet.txt

Find unique Subnets
for /f "delims=" %i in (Output from FindSubnets) do @Find /i "%i" UniqueSubnets.txt 1>nul 2>nul & @if ErrorLevel 1 echo %i >> UniqueSubnets.txt

Find DHCP Scopes not in AD
for /f "tokens=1,2" %i in (Output from 'Find Unique Subnets') do @for /f "skip=2 delims==" %m in ('find /i "%j" SubnetMaskShorthand.txt') do @find /i "%i/%m" Output from 'AD Subnet and Site Information' >NUL & @If ErrorLevel 1 for /f "skip=1 tokens=2 delims=:" %p in ('find /i /c "%i %j" Output from 'Find Subnets from formatted output'') do @Echo %i/%m,%p

DHCP Clients Per AD Site
for /f "tokens=1,2,3 delims=/ " %i in (Output from 'AD Subnet and Site Information') do @For /f "skip=2 tokens=1,2 delims==" %m in ('find /i "%j=" SubnetMaskShorthand.txt') do @For /f "skip=1 tokens=2 delims=:" %p in ('find /i /c "%i,%n" Output from 'Find Subnets from DHCP clients') Do @Echo %i/%m,%p,%k

DHCP Servers Per AD Site
for /f "tokens=1,2 delims=/" %i in (SiteClientCounts.txt) do @for %k in ("Output from ‘DHCP Server Active Scope Info’") do @find /i "%i" "%k" >nul & If ErrorLevel 0 if Not ErrorLevel 1 echo %i/%j,%~nk

Total DHCP Scopes
find /i "subnet" "Output from DHCP server information" find /i "subnet"

WINS command-line operations

WINS serer information
Netsh wins server \\WINS_SERVER dump > wins.txt

WINS Statistics
for /f "tokens=1,2 delims=," %i in (WINSServers.txt) do netsh wins server \\%i show statistics >> WINSConfig_%j.txt

WINS Record counts per server
for /f "tokens=1,2 delims=," %i in (WINSServers.txt) do netsh wins server \\%i show reccount %i >> WINSRecordCount.txt

WINS Server Information
for /f "tokens=2 delims=," %i in (WINSServers.txt) do netsh wins server \\%i show info >> WINSConfig_%i.txt

WINS Server Dump
for /f "tokens=2 delims=," %i in (WINSServers.txt) do netsh wins server \\%i dump > WINSConfig_%i.txt

WINS Static Records per Server
netsh wins server \\LocalWINSServer show database servers={} rectype=1

Use WMI to find the WINS entries for DNS-enabled NICs on a list of servers
for /f %i in (servers.txt) do @for /f "skip=1" %m in ('"wmic /node:%i path Win32_NetworkAdapterConfiguration WHERE FullDNSRegistrationEnabled=True get WINSPrimaryServer"') do @echo %i,%m

Set the WINS entry for the specified network
psexec \\%server% netsh interface ip set wins "Local Area Connection" static %WINSIP%

Wayne's World of IT (WWoIT), Copyright 2008 Wayne Martin.


Mat Grove said...

thanks for this as usual a great help. I did find a good method to get the forwarder and ip details out:
for /f "tokens=1,2,3,4* delims= " %i in ('dnscmd /enumzones /forwarder') do @echo %i && dnscmd /zoneinfo %i | find /i "Master"

Laurent Zerirgui said...

I have a little bit improve your script:

for /f "tokens=1,2,3,4* delims= " %%i in ('dnscmd /enumzones /forwarder') DO (
echo %%i >> ConditionalForwardersTemp.txt
dnscmd /zoneinfo %%i | find /i "Master[" >> ConditionalForwardersTemp.txt
findstr /i /v /C:"enume" /C:zone /C:command ConditionalForwardersTemp.txt > ConditionalForwarders.txt
del "ConditionalForwardersTemp.txt"

It shows which zone is corresponding to the conditional forwarders and remove unnecessary information.

Laurent Zerirgui. said...

Windows Troubleshooting-First, allow us to observe some Windows seven update issues associated with update of the SP one. Sometimes, the Windows seven service pack one update fails. The answer to the current drawback mostly depends on what style of error you're receiving. Before doing something specific, you'll plan to clear the matter through 2 generic solutions. Firstly, you'll strive fixing the matter victimisation the Windows' trouble-shooter: click on the beginning orb, choose panel > Troubleshooting and there the Fix issues with Windows Update link. Secondly, you'll strive the System Update Readiness tool for Windows seven. You’ll download the tool from the web site of Microsoft. The code for the update is KB947821. Download the tool compatible along with your system (32-bit or 64-bit). This tool checks your system for inconsistencies that square measure preventive the update method. Windows seven update issues will your time conjointly rise as a result of your browser.

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About Me

I’ve worked in IT for over 20 years, and I know just about enough to realise that I don’t know very much.