Monday, December 29, 2008

Command-line automation – Echo and macros

This is the fifth and last in a series of posts containing information on what I consider the building blocks to automate repetitive tasks at the Windows command-line. These components are the for, find, findstr, set, if and echo commands, control files used to control data input, combined with errorlevels, command concatenation, nested loops and if/then/else constructs.

Described in this post is the echo command and how to execute your commands using macros with doskey.


Echo is one of the most important commands to use when constructing repeatable commands – you should never run a command against multiple objects without first using echo. Some commands can be disastrous without appropriate input checking.

For example, using a wildcard incorrectly in a file spec, instead of putting *.txt, below I’ve put ‘* .txt’ – the wildcard selecting everything in the current directory (with the unfortunate del command for each of those files).
for %i in (* .txt) do echo del %i

Or more commonly – an incorrectly formed control file. The following command is one I’ve used to fix invalidly set UPNs on user accounts in the local directory. This command is quite powerful, and can be used to fix dozens or hundreds of accounts in seconds – but if the input file is not well formed, you could end up breaking each account:
for /f "skip=1 tokens=1,2-3" %i in (NoUPN.txt) do echo dsmod user "%j %k" -upn %i@%upnsuffix%

Incidentally, the command used to generate the ‘NoUPN.txt’ file was:
dsquery * %OU% -filter "&(objectclass=user)(objectcategory=person)(!(userprincipalname=*))" -s %server% -scope onelevel -attr name distinguishedname > NoUPN.txt

If you are untrusting of using the ‘for /f’ to execute operations against multiple objects, you can also use echo to construct a batch file that you can run at a later time – good practice rather than writing and executing the command in a single attempt. This may also useful when you’re modifying hundreds or thousands of objects and you don’t want to execute the commands immediately – for example if the modifications were in Active Directory and you wanted to prevent excessive replication during the day.

Running the command above with an appended redirect (>>) to a file, you could then pass this file to someone else for sanity checking before actual execution of the batch job:
for /f "skip=1 tokens=1,2-3" %i in (NoUPN.txt) do echo dsmod user "%j %k" -upn %i@%upnsuffix% >> %temp%\SetUPN.bat

Doskey macros

In the previous post there was a command to calculate a subnet at the command-line. If you had to type it every time - or even copy and paste - it’s not something you would use (okay, you’d probably never use it anyway), but doskey macros provide a simple method of allowing command re-use.

Creating a macro file

A text file can be created containing your macros, choose a shorthand name for the command, followed by the command you wish to execute. One slightly odd aspect with a macro file is that variables passed at the command-line for the macro use the $ prefix instead of %.

To make macros more useful, I often add two options – one without any parameters with a defined default, and another accepting a parameter to customise the command. For example, the following macro - called ‘AD2003’ - would by default query the local directory for all 2003 computer accounts. If a parameter is passed ($1), the dsquery command passes the parameter as the start node for the search (which could be a DN to limited the containers queried, or a different domain than domainroot).

AD2003=if _$1==_ (dsquery * domainroot -filter "(&(objectCategory=Computer)(objectClass=Computer)(operatingSystem=Windows Server 2003))" -limit 0) else (dsquery * $1 -filter "(&(objectCategory=Computer)(objectClass=Computer)(operatingSystem=Windows Server 2003))" -limit 0)

The find subnet command from the previous post could be shortened to execute the command with something as simple as ‘fs’, by adding the following to a macro file (and executing on a command processor with delayed expansion enabled):

FS=for /f "tokens=1-8 delims=.- " %i in ('echo $1 $2') do @set /a Octet1="%i & %m" >nul & @set /a Octet2="%j & %n" >nul & @set /a Octet3="%k & %o" >nul & @set /a Octet4="%l & %p" >nul & Echo !Octet1!.!Octet2!.!Octet3!.!Octet4!

Automatically enabling the macro file

It would also be unwieldy if you had to enable the doskey macros each time you ran a command shell. However, you can easily automate this with the autorun key of the shell, stored in either

Key - HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\software\microsoft\Command Processor
Value - AutoRun
Value Type - REG_SZ
Value Data - doskey /macrofile=c:\util\macros.txt (or wherever)

This concludes what hopefully was a useful description of how I use built-in shell commands to automate repetitive tasks and make my work life easier and more efficient. Some of the resultant commands are not particularly easy to follow, but each can be broken down into the component parts and digested separately.

For more real-world examples of how I use the information in the last five posts, see my command-line operations:

Wayne's World of IT (WWoIT), Copyright 2008 Wayne Martin.

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About Me

I’ve worked in IT for over 20 years, and I know just about enough to realise that I don’t know very much.